Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Interpret the structure of expressions.

Indicator: Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x^4 - y^4 as (x^2)^2 - (y^2)^2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x^2 - y^2)(x^2 + y^2).

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Interpret the structure of expressions.

Indicator: Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context.*

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

Indicator: Use the properties of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 - y4 as (x2)2 - (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 - y2)(x2 + y2).

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

Indicator: Complete the square in a quadratic expression to reveal the maximum or minimum value of the function it defines.

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

Indicator: Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines.

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Interpret the structure of expressions.

Indicator: Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients.*

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Interpret the structure of expressions.

Indicator: Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)^n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P.*

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

Indicator: Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. For example, calculate mortgage payments.*

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Seeing Structure in Expressions

Standard: Write expressions in equivalent forms to solve problems

Indicator: Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression.

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Learning Domain: Algebra: Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Functions

Standard: Rewrite rational expressions

Indicator: Rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; write a(x)/b(x) in the form q(x) + r(x)/b(x), where a(x), b(x), q(x), and r(x) are polynomials with the degree of r(x) less than the degree of b(x), using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system.

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Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Look for and make use of structure. Mathematically proficient students look closely to discern a pattern or structure. Young students, for example, might notice that three and seven more is the same amount as seven and three more, or they may sort a collection of shapes according to how many sides the shapes have. Later, students will see 7 x 8 equals the well remembered 7 x 5 + 7 x 3, in preparation for learning about the distributive property. In the expression x^2 + 9x + 14, older students can see the 14 as 2 x 7 and the 9 as 2 + 7. They recognize the significance of an existing line in a geometric figure and can use the strategy of drawing an auxiliary line for solving problems. They also can step back for an overview and shift perspective. They can see complicated things, such as some algebraic expressions, as single objects or as being composed of several objects. For example, they can see 5 - 3(x - y)^2 as 5 minus a positive number times a square and use that to realize that its value cannot be more than 5 for any real numbers x and y.

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Learning Domain: Mathematical Practices

Standard: Mathematical practices

Indicator: Reason abstractly and quantitatively. Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize"Óto abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents"Óand the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

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