# The Art of Approximation in Science and Engineering: How to Whip Out Answers Quickly

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The purpose of this learning video is to show students how to think more freely about math and science problems. Sometimes getting an approximate answer in a much shorter period of time is well worth the time saved. This video explores techniques for making quick, back-of-the-envelope approximations that are not only surprisingly accurate, but are also illuminating for building intuition in understanding science. This video touches upon 10th-grade level Algebra I and first-year high school physics, but the concepts covered (velocity, distance, mass, etc) are basic enough that science-oriented younger students would understand. If desired, teachers may bring in pendula of various lengths, weights to hang, and a stopwatch to measure period. Examples of in- class exercises for between the video segments include: asking students to estimate 29 x 31 without a calculator or paper and pencil; and asking students how close they can get to a black hole without getting sucked in.

Material Type: Lecture

Author: Stephen M. Hou

# Fabulous Fractals and Difference Equations

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This learning video introduces students to the world of Fractal Geometry through the use of difference equations. As a prerequisite to this lesson, students would need two years of high school algebra (comfort with single variable equations) and motivation to learn basic complex arithmetic. Ms. Zager has included a complete introductory tutorial on complex arithmetic with homework assignments downloadable here. Also downloadable are some supplemental challenge problems. Time required to complete the core lesson is approximately one hour, and materials needed include a blackboard/whiteboard as well as space for students to work in small groups. During the in-class portions of this interactive lesson, students will brainstorm on the outcome of the chaos game and practice calculating trajectories of different equations.

Material Type: Lecture

Author: Laura Zager

# Using Geometry to Design Simple Machines

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This video is meant to be a fun, hands-on session that gets students to think hard about how machines work. It teaches them the connection between the geometry that they study and the kinematics that engineers use -- explaining that kinematics is simply geometry in motion. In this lesson, geometry will be used in a way that students are not used to. Materials necessary for the hands-on activities include two options: pegboard, nails/screws and a small saw; or colored construction paper, thumbtacks and scissors. Some in-class activities for the breaks between the video segments include: exploring the role of geometry in a slider-crank mechanism; determining at which point to locate a joint or bearing in a mechanism; recognizing useful mechanisms in the students' communities that employ the same guided motion they have been studying.

Material Type: Lecture

Authors: Daniel D. Frey, MIT BLOSSOMS

# AAS Congruent Triangles

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An interactive applet and associated web page that shows how triangles that have two angles and a non-included side the same must be congruent. The applet shows two triangles, one of which can be reshaped by dragging any vertex. The other changes to remain congruent to it and the two angles and non-included side are outlined in bold to show they are the same measure and are the elements being used to prove congruence. The web page describes all this and has links to other related pages. Applet can be enlarged to full screen size for use with a classroom projector. This resource is a component of the Math Open Reference Interactive Geometry textbook project at http://www.mathopenref.com.

Material Type: Reading, Simulation

Author: John Page

# The Pythagorean Theorem: Square Areas

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This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to: use the area of right triangles to deduce the areas of other shapes; use dissection methods for finding areas; organize an investigation systematically and collect data; deduce a generalizable method for finding lengths and areas (The Pythagorean Theorem.)

Material Type: Assessment, Lesson Plan

# Inscribed Angles That Intercept the Same Arc

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If two inscribed angles intercept the same arc, then the angles are equal. Drag the orange points to change the figure.

Material Type: Activity/Lab, Diagram/Illustration, Homework/Assignment, Interactive, Simulation, Teaching/Learning Strategy

Author: Jay Warendorff

# Modeling: Rolling Cups

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This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to: choose appropriate mathematics to solve a non-routine problem; generate useful data by systematically controlling variables; and develop experimental and analytical models of a physical situation.

Material Type: Assessment, Lesson Plan

# Modeling: Having Kittens

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This lesson unit is intended to help teachers assess how well students are able to: interpret a situation and represent the constraints and variables mathematically; select appropriate mathematical methods to use; make sensible estimates and assumptions; investigate an exponentially increasing sequence; and communicate their reasoning clearly.

Material Type: Assessment, Lesson Plan

# Taking Walks, Delivering Mail: An Introduction to Graph Theory

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This learning video presents an introduction to graph theory through two fun, puzzle-like problems: ''The Seven Bridges of Konigsberg'' and ''The Chinese Postman Problem''. Any high school student in a college-preparatory math class should be able to participate in this lesson. Materials needed include: pen and paper for the students; if possible, printed-out copies of the graphs and image that are used in the module; and a blackboard or equivalent. During this video lesson, students will learn graph theory by finding a route through a city/town/village without crossing the same path twice. They will also learn to determine the length of the shortest route that covers all the roads in a city/town/village. To achieve these two learning objectives, they will use nodes and arcs to create a graph and represent a real problem.

Material Type: Lecture

Authors: BLOSSOMS, Karima R. Nigmatulina

# Points Equidistant from Two Points in the Plane

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This task is part of a series presenting important foundational geometric results and constructions which are fundamental for more elaborate arguments. They are presented without a real world context so as to see the important hypotheses and logical steps involved as clearly as possible.

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Illustrative Mathematics

# How Many Cells are in the Human Body?

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The purpose of this task is for students to apply the concepts of mass, volume, and density in a real-world context. There are several ways one might approach the problem, e.g., by estimating the volume of a person and dividing by the volume of a cell.

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Illustrative Mathematics

# CTE Health Sciences: Range of Motion

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This task was developed by high school and postsecondary mathematics and health sciences educators, and validated by content experts in the Common Core State Standards in mathematics and the National Career Clusters Knowledge & Skills Statements. It was developed with the purpose of demonstrating how the Common Core and CTE Knowledge & Skills Statements can be integrated into classroom learning - and to provide classroom teachers with a truly authentic task for either mathematics or CTE courses.

Material Type: Activity/Lab, Lesson Plan

# Identifying Similar Triangles

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This lesson unit is intended to help you assess how students reason about geometry and, in particular, how well they are able to: use facts about the angle sum and exterior angles of triangles to calculate missing angles; apply angle theorems to parallel lines cut by a transversal; interpret geometrical diagrams using mathematical properties to identify similarity of triangles.

Material Type: Assessment, Lesson Plan

# Pythagoras and the Juice Seller

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This video lesson presents a real world problem that can be solved by using the Pythagorean theorem. The problem faces a juice seller daily. He has equilateral barrels with equal heights and he always tries to empty the juice of two barrels into a third barrel that has a volume equal to the sum of the volumes of the two barrels. This juice seller wants to find a simple way to help him select the right barrel without wasting time, and without any calculations - since he is ignorant of Mathematics. The prerequisite for this lesson includes knowledge of the following: the Pythagorean theorem; calculation of a triangles area knowing the angle between its two sides; cosine rule; calculation of a circle's area; and calculation of the areas and volumes of solids with regular bases.

Material Type: Lecture

Remix

# Magic Eyes

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Our glasses are designed to convert images that are 2-dimensional into 3-dimensional images

Material Type: Lesson

# Islamic Art and Culture: A Resource for Teachers

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In this packet we look at works that span nearly a thousand yearsäóîfrom shortly after the foundation of Islam in the seventh century to the seventeenth century when the last two great Islamic empiresäóîthe Ottoman and the Safavidäóîhad reached their peak. Although the definition of Islamic art usually includes work made in Mughal India, it is beyond the scope of this packet. The works we will look at here come from as far west as Spain and as far east as Afghanistan.

Material Type: Reading, Teaching/Learning Strategy

# Maths and Islamic art & design

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This resource provides a variety of information and activities that teachers may like to use with their students to explore the Islamic Middle East collections at the V&A. It can be used to support learning in Maths and Art. Included in this resource are sections on: Principles of Islamic art and design Pre-visit activities Activities to do in the museum Activities to do back at school Islamic art explores the geometric systems that depend upon the regular division of the circle and the study of Islamic art increases appreciation and understanding of geometry. The use of these geometric systems creates a harmony among Islamic decorative arts and architecture, which is consistent with the Islamic belief that all creation is harmoniously interrelated. Approaching an abstract subject in a concrete way provides a means of extending maths into other curriculum areas. The context of the Museum expands and enriches students' appreciation of the application of geometry in a cultural context and develops the sense of different cultural identities. Students have the opportunity to become familiar with the relationship between geometry and design and this can give confidence to students who have never seen themselves as 'good at art'.

Material Type: Activity/Lab, Diagram/Illustration

# Ilkhanid Mihrab

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This art history video discussion examines the "Mihrab" (prayer niche), 1354--55 (A.H. 755), just after the Ilkhanid period, Isfahan, Iran, polychrome glazed tiles, 135-1/16 x 113-11/16 inches / 343.1 x 288.7 cm (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York).

Material Type: Diagram/Illustration, Lecture

Authors: Beth Harris, Steven Zucker

# Experimenting with Symmetry

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In this activity, learners use pattern blocks and mirrors to explore symmetry. Learners work in pairs and build mirror images of each other's designs. In doing so, learners will examine principles of symmetry and reflection.

Material Type: Activity/Lab

# Congruent Segments

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Students' first experience with transformations is likely to be with specific shapes like triangles, quadrilaterals, circles, and figures with symmetry. Exhibiting a sequence of transformations that shows that two generic line segments of the same length are congruent is a good way for students to begin thinking about transformations in greater generality.

Material Type: Activity/Lab

Author: Illustrative Mathematics